Noun Declension Paradigms of Silindion

  Vowel Stems

These are words with stems ending in ‹-a›, ‹-o›, ‹-u›, ‹-i›, and in High Silindion ‹-e›, and whose stems and nominatives are the same (with the exception of the ‹-e› stems whose nominatives end in /e/ rather than /E/).

  1. O Stem: famo- 'willow'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: famo famë
    Acc: famón faméin
    Gen: famori fameiri
    Dat: famonu fameinu
    Abl: famolim fameilim
    Loc: famovi fameivi
    All: famonna fameinna
    Com: famomma fameimma
    Ins: famo famëu
    Cop: famor fameir
    Ess: famë famë
    Rel: famotma fameitma
    Adj: fámië fámië

  2. EO Stem: órëo- 'tongue'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: órëo órië
    Acc: orëon oriein
    Gen: orëori orieiri
    Dat: orëonu orieinu
    Abl: orëolim orieilim
    Loc: orëovi orieivi
    All: orëonna orieinna
    Com: orëomma orieimma
    Ins: órëu óriu
    Cop: órëor órieir
    Ess: órië órië
    Rel: orëotma orieitma
    Adj: órië órië

  3. A Stem: kira- 'stone'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: kira kirë
    Acc: kirán kiréin
    Gen: kilari kileiri
    Dat: kiranu kireinu
    Abl: kiralim kireilim
    Loc: kiravi kireivi
    All: kiranna kireinna
    Com: kiramma kireimma
    Ins: kiro kírëu
    Cop: kilar kileir
    Ess: kirë kirë
    Rel: kiratma kireitma
    Adj: kírëa kírië

  4. OA Stem: koa- 'dog'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: koa koi
    Acc: koán koéin
    Gen: koari koeiri
    Dat: koanu koeinu
    Abl: koalim koeilim
    Loc: koavi koeivi
    All: koanna koeinna
    Com: koamma koeimma
    Ins: kuo koyu
    Cop: koar koir
    Ess: koi koi
    Rel: koatma koeitma
    Adj: koyëa koyë

  5. U Stem: ainu- 'snake'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: ainu aini
    Acc: ainún ainín
    Gen: ainuri ainiri
    Dat: ainunu aininu
    Abl: ainulim ainilim
    Loc: ainuvi ainivi
    All: ainunna aininna
    Com: ainumma ainimma
    Ins: ainu áiniu
    Cop: ainur ainir
    Ess: aini aini
    Rel: ainutma ainitma
    Adj: áinië áinië

  6. I Stem: turni- 'night'.

    Nom: turni
    Acc: turnín
    Gen: turniri
    Dat: turninu
    Abl: turnilim
    Loc: turnivi
    All: turninna
    Com: turnimma
    Ins: túrniu
    Cop: turnir
    Ess: turni
    Rel: turnitma
    Adj: túrnië

  7. ËA Stem: miélëa- 'mother-moon'.

    Singular *Plural
    Nom: miélëa *miélië
    Acc: mielëan *mieliéin
    Gen: mielëari *mielieiri
    Dat: mielëanu *mielieinu
    Abl: mielëalim *mielieilim
    Loc: mielëavi *mielieivi
    All: mielëanna *mielieinna
    Com: mielëamma *mielieimma
    Ins: miélëo *miélio
    Cop: miélëar *miélieir
    Ess: miélië *miélië
    Rel: mielëatma *mielieitma
    Adj: miélia *miélië

  8. E Stem: lune- 'evening'.

    Singular, HS Plural, HS
    Nom: lunë lunë
    Acc: lunén lunín
    Gen: luneri luniri
    Dat: lunenu luninu
    Abl: lunelim lunilim
    Loc: lunevi lunivi
    All: lunenna luninna
    Com: lunemma lunimma
    Ins: lúnëu lúniu
    Cop: luner lunir
    Ess: lunë lunë
    Rel: lunetma lunitma
    Adj: lúnië lúnië

  9. IE Stem: laivie- 'lioness'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: láivië láivië
    Acc: laivién laivín
    Gen: laivieri laiviri
    Dat: laivienu laivinu
    Abl: laivielim laivilim
    Loc: laivievi laivivi
    All: laivienna laivinna
    Com: laiviemma laivimma
    Ins: láiviu láiviu
    Cop: láivier laivir
    Ess: láivië láivië
    Rel: laivietma laivitma
    Adj: láivië láivië

  Consonant Stems

These are stems which end or ended with a consonant. The main characteristics of these stems are: plurals in ‹-ya›, adjectival always in ‹-ëa›, copulative in ‹-ar› or ‹-ra›, and vowel harmony in some stem types in the accusative, allative and comitative.

  1. AY Stems: stems ending in ‹ë› (< -ay). In Low Silindion, all ‹-e› stems and all words whose nominative ends in ‹-ë› (except IE stems) become AY stems. A characteristic of these stems is an added  ‹-a› in some of the endings.
    Example: passë- 'crow'.

    Singular/Plural HS   Plural, Written LS   Plural, Spoken LS
    Nom: passë passi passi
    Acc: pássëan pássian passín
    Gen: passë(a)ri passi(a)ri passiri
    Dat: pássëanu pássianu passinu
    Abl: pássëalim pássialim passilim
    Loc: pássëavi pássiavi passivi
    All: pássëanna pássianna passinna
    Com: pássëamma pássiamma passimma
    Ins: pássëu pássiu pássiu
    Cop: pássëar pássiar passir
    Ess: passë passi passi
    Rel: pássëatma pássiatma passitma
    Adj: pássëa pássia pássia

  2. SS Stems: stems ending in ‹-ss›, alternating with ‹-t› or zero. Those words exhibit voyel harmony with the first syllable (example: accusative ‹sehwentë› 'wound' ~ ‹kanta› 'denial' - nominative ‹kass›).
    Example: sehwess- 'wound'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: sehwess sehwetya
    Acc: sehwentë sehwetyán
    Gen: sehwetti sehwetyari
    Dat: sehwentu sehwetyanu
    Abl: sehwellim sehwetyalim
    Loc: sehwevi sehwetyavi
    All: sehwenta sehwetyanna
    Com: sehwenta sehwetyamma
    Ins: sehwessu sehwetyo
    Cop: sehwessar sehwetyar
    Ess: sehwessi sehwetyë
    Rel: sehwetma sehwetyatma
    Adj: sehwéssëa sehwétyëa

  3. S Stems: these are words which end in ‹-s› which alternates with ‹-r› and zero in some forms. In the locative, the ending becomes ‹-phi›.
    Example: aros- 'spruce'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: aros arohya
    Acc: alorna arohyán
    Gen: arosti arohyari
    Dat: alornu arohyanu
    Abl: arollim arohyalim
    Loc: arophi arohyavi
    All: alorna arohyanna
    Com: alorma arohyamma
    Ins: arosu arohyo
    Cop: alorra arohyar
    Ess: arosi arohyë
    Rel: arosma arohyatma
    Adj: arósëa aróhyëa

  4. R Stems: stems ending in ‹-r›. They exhibit the same type of vowel harmony in the accusative as in SS stems, except a vowel combination such as ‹-ëo› counts as a back vowel. They also show vowel harmony also in the comitative and allative cases (example: accusative ‹mer-në› 'mountain' ~ ‹lëor-na› 'time' - nominative ‹lëor›).
    Example: mer- 'mountain'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: mer merya
    Acc: mernë meryán
    Gen: merni meryari
    Dat: mernu meryanu
    Abl: merrim meryalim
    Loc: mervi meryavi
    All: merenna meryanna
    Com: meremma meryamma
    Ins: meru meryo
    Cop: merra meryar
    Ess: meri meryë
    Rel: merma meryatma
    Adj: mérëa méryëa

  5. N Stems: stems ending in at least one ‹-n›. Sometimes these words have two stems, both ending in ‹-n›. Other times there are two stems one of which doesn't end in ‹-n›. Nominative is formed in two ways: for 1-stem words, the nominative is the bare stem. For 2-stem words, the second stem is suffixed with the last vowel of the first stem. They show voyel harmony in the accusative, allative and comitative cases (example: accusative ‹sulon-na› ~ ‹yomen-në›, allative ‹suln-anna› ~ ‹yomm-enna›).
    Examples: 1 STEM: ivan- 'home'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: ivan ivanya
    Acc: ivanna ivanyán
    Gen: ivandi ivanyari
    Dat: ivannu ivanyanu
    Abl: ivallim ivanyalim
    Loc: ivavi ivanyavi
    All: ivananna ivanyanna
    Com: ivanamma ivanyamma
    Ins: ivanu ivanyo
    Cop: ivanar/ivarra ivanyar
    Ess: ivani ivanyë
    Rel: ivatma ivanyatma
    Adj: ivánëa iványëa

    2 STEMS: sulon-/suln- 'river'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: sulno sulonya
    Acc: sulonna sulonyán
    Gen: sulondi sulonyari
    Dat: sulonnu sulonyanu
    Abl: surolim sulonyalim
    Loc: sulovi sulonyavi
    All: sulnanna sulonyanna
    Com: sulnamma sulonyamma
    Ins: sulonu sulonyo
    Cop: sulnar sulonyar
    Ess: sulni sulonyë
    Rel: sulotma sulonyatma
    Adj: súlnëa sulónyëa

    2 STEMS: yomen-/yomm- 'night/night sky'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: yommë yomenya
    Acc: yomennë yomenyán
    Gen: yomendi yomenyari
    Dat: yomennu yomenyanu
    Abl: yomellim yomenyalim
    Loc: yomevi yomenyavi
    All: yommenna yomenyanna
    Com: yommemma yomenyamma
    Ins: yomenu yomenyo
    Cop: yommar yomenyar
    Ess: yommi yomenyë
    Rel: yometma yomenyatma
    Adj: yómmëa yoményëa

  6. L Stems: these include all words whose nominative singular ends in ‹-l›.
    Example: tarkil- 'sky'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: tarkil tarkilya
    Acc: tarkildë tarkilyán
    Gen: tarkildi tarkilyari
    Dat: tarkildu tarkilyanu
    Abl: tarkillim tarkilyalim
    Loc: tarkilvi tarkilyavi
    All: tarkilda tarkilyanna
    Com: tarkilma tarkilyamma
    Ins: tarkilu tarkilyo
    Cop: tarkilar tarkilyar
    Ess: tarkili tarkilyë
    Rel: tarkilma tarkilyatma
    Adj: tarkílëa tarkílyëa

  7. ST Stems: this is a rare stem type occurring in ‹ost-› 'wind' and a derivative ‹lutost-› 'lute'.
    Example: ost- 'wind'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: os ossa
    Acc: ostán ossán
    Gen: osti ossari
    Dat: osnu ossanu
    Abl: oslim ossalim
    Loc: osvi ossavi
    All: ostanna ossanna
    Com: ostamma ossamma
    Ins: ostu osso
    Cop: ostar ossar
    Ess: osti ossë
    Rel: osma ossatma
    Adj: óstëa óssëa

  8. T Stems: stems ending in ‹-t› whose nominative singular ends in ‹-tV›. Except for the nominative, copulative, essive and adjectival, they are conjugated like SS stems in High Silindion. In Low Silindion, they are transferred to AY stems, by analogy with their nominative singulars. They exhibit vowel harmony like SS stems.
    Example: velet- 'knot'.

    Singular, HS Plural, HS
    Nom: veltë veletya
    Acc: velentë veletyán
    Gen: veletti veletyari
    Dat: velentu veletyanu
    Abl: verellim veletyalim
    Loc: velevi veletyavi
    All: velenta veletyanna
    Com: velenta veletyamma
    Ins: velessu veletyo
    Cop: veltar veletyar
    Ess: velti veletyë
    Rel: veletma veletyatma
    Adj: véltëa velétyëa

  9. D Stems: gerunds (or nouns which can be translated as gerunds) whose nominative have the form ‹-V(n)na›. Stems of all such words end in ‹-d›, alternating in a few forms with zero, and in the plural with ‹-n›. Another type of D stem is the word ‹ëan› 'thing'.
    Examples: lond- 'hunt'.

    Singular Plural, HS Plural, LS
    Nom: lona lonanya lonë
    Acc: londán lonanyán lonéin
    Gen: londi lonanyari loneiri
    Dat: lonnu lonanyanu loneinu
    Abl: lonlim lonanyalim loneilim
    Loc: lonvi lonanyavi loneivi
    All: londanna lonanyanna loneinna
    Com: londamma lonanyamma loneimma
    Ins: londu lonanyo lónëu
    Cop: londar lonanyar loneir
    Ess: londi lonanyë lonë
    Rel: lonma lonanyatma loneitma
    Adj: lóndëa lonányëa lónië

    ëand- 'thing'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: ëan ëanya
    Acc: ëandán ëanyán
    Gen: ëandi ëanyari
    Dat: ëannu ëanyanu
    Abl: ëanlim ëanyalim
    Loc: ëanvi ëanyavi
    All: ëandanna ëanyanna
    Com: ëandamma ëanyamma
    Ins: ëandu ëanyo
    Cop: ëandar ëanyar
    Ess: ëandi ëanyë
    Rel: ëanma ëanyatma
    Adj: ëandëa ëanyëa

  10. Irregular Stems: a small amount of words have irregular stems. The most common are ‹nan› 'light' (‹nal(d)-›), ‹nirnë› 'order' (‹nir(n)-›) and ‹ur› 'day' (‹uro-›).
    Examples: nal(d)- 'light'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: nan nanya
    Acc: naldán nanyán
    Gen: nandi nanyari
    Dat: nannu nanyanu
    Abl: nallim nanyalim
    Loc: nalvi nanyavi
    All: naldanna nanyanna
    Com: naldamma nanyamma
    Ins: naldu nanyo
    Cop: naldar nanyar
    Ess: naldi nanyë
    Rel: nalma nanyatma
    Adj: náldëa nányëa

    nir(n)- 'order'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: nirnë nirña
    Acc: nirnán nirñán
    Gen: nirdi nirñari
    Dat: nirnu nirñanu
    Abl: nirrim nirñalim
    Loc: nirvi nirñavi
    All: nirnanna nirñanna
    Com: nirnamma nirñamma
    Ins: nirnu nirño
    Cop: nirnar nirñar
    Ess: nirni nirñë
    Rel: nirma nirñatma
    Adj: nínëa nírñëa

    uro- 'day'.

    Singular Plural
    Nom: ur urë
    Acc: urón uréin
    Gen: ulori uleiri
    Dat: uronu ureinu
    Abl: urolim ureilim
    Loc: urovi ureivi
    All: uronna ureinna
    Com: uromma ureimma
    Ins: uru úrëu
    Cop: ular uleir
    Ess: uri urë
    Rel: urotma ureitma
    Adj: úrië úrië